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Birth Defects & Disorders - American Pregnancy Association

Date of publication: 2017-07-09 13:04

If a mother has certain infections (such as toxoplasmosis ) during pregnancy, her baby can have a birth defect. Other conditions that cause defects include rubella and chickenpox (varicella). Fortunately, many people get vaccinated against these diseases so these infections are rare.

Neural Tube Defects | MedlinePlus

Women who do not have enough folic acid during the pregnancy have a higher chance of giving birth to a baby with spina bifida. Experts say that women of reproductive age should make sure their folic acid intake is adequate. Nobody is sure how folic acid intake prevents spina bifida from developing.

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Spina bifida is caused by the incomplete closing of the embryonic neural tube. The term "spina bifida" comes from the Latin "spina" meaning "spine", and "bifida" meaning "split."

All Disorders | National Institute of Neurological

Gastrointestinal defects are structural defects that can happen at any point along the gastrointestinal tract, which is made up of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum, and anus. The incomplete or abnormal development of any of these organs can cause blockages that can lead to swallowing difficulties, vomiting, and problems with bowel movements.

If there's a family history of birth defects or a woman is part of a high-risk group (due to age, ethnic background, or medical history), she should consider meeting with a genetic counselor to determine her baby's risk.

There may also be Type 7 Arnold-Chiari malformation, an abnormal brain development involving the cerebellum - this may affect the patient's language processing and physical coordination skills.

Approximately 65% of people with spina bifida will have average intelligence. A significant percentage of those with normal intelligence will have some kind of learning disability which may include problems with attention, solving problems, reading, understanding spoken language, making plans, and grasping abstract concepts. There may also be problems with visual and physical coordination, such as doing up buttons or shoelaces.

Assistive technologies - a patient with total paralysis of the legs will need a wheelchair. Although electric wheelchairs are more convenient, manual ones help maintain upper-body strength and general fitness. Those with partial paralysis may need leg braces. Computers and specialized software may help children with learning problems.

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Note: All information on KidsHealth 679 is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor.

Functional birth defects are related to a problem with how a body part or body system works. These problems often lead to developmental disabilities and can include things such as:

Environmental factors that a woman is exposed to during pregnancy , such as rubella or German measles while pregnant , or using drugs or alcohol during pregnancy.

Anal plugs can prevent soiling. They are made of foam and inserted into the anus. As soon as it gets wet it expands, thus blocking the passage of any feces and liquid. Anal plugs work for about 67 hours, they can be taken out by pulling an attached string.

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